Do you remember?
On February 21, 1971, the National Warning Center at the North
American Air Defense Command (NORAD) in Colorado accidentally
transmitted an Emergency Action Notification (EAN) message instead of
the scheduled test message. The EAN message was sent at the time of a
regularly scheduled test, and was sent over the AP and UPI wire
services, which NORAD could control for EBS purposes. The EAN message
was supposed to be issued to the industry network control points only
when the President activated the national-level EBS.
A study of the event followed. The investigation revealed that some
stations thought the message was a mistake because it was issued at the
same time as the routine NORAD weekly wire service test message. Many
broadcast stations did not immediately respond to the EAN message as
required by the FCC EBS rules. Others searched for confirmation from
other sources such as the major networks but could find none. Some
stations simply failed to hear the wire service alarm or see the
printed wire copy message. Some stations actually aired the
In 1972, the government, in cooperation with the National Industry
Advisory Committee (NIAC), corrected deficiencies they found as a
result of the NORAD error. Their corrective actions were to:
Remove the "Attack Warning" function from EBS. This action removed
NORAD as an activator of the national-level EBS, leaving the President
as the sole activator the national-level EBS.
Revise and simplify the EBS instructions issued by the FCC such as
the Part 73 EBS rules, EBS Checklists, EBS National Control Procedures
and Authenticator Lists.
Improve the activation and authentication procedures.
That was then
Ramko ran an ad in 1981 for its Phase Master cart machine, which
included an electronic system to "eliminate phase shift and
time-consuming calibration procedures" that did not move the machine's
heads. In addition, it could record, play and duplicate carts and
The picture in the ad showed Johnny P. Shift, the morning DJ at
K-FAZ explaining to station manager Uncle Bobby that the radio
station's sound is terrible.
Also included with the ad and bound into the magazine was a flexible
sound sheet record named "The Worst of K-FAX Radio starring Johnny
Sample and Hold
The trends shaping radio
In-car radio listening levels are up, while work and home levels
Radio listening levels at work and at home have dropped slowly over the
past few years, perhaps due to the emergence of new media and
entertainment options such as the Internet and video games.
Source: Arbitron Inc./Edison Media Research
Note: Data expressed in AQH ratings, 12+.