Grounding and signal problems 

Adequate grounding means different things to different engineers.

IBOC and combiners 

Some transmitter manufacturers have already announced the availability of FM IBOC transmitting equipment, and offered actual equipment at the NAB show. FM IBOC requires considerably more equipment than the AM version, and it is more expensive.

Thoughts about IBOC 

Many engineers anxiously awaited the release of the National Radio Systems Committee's AM IBOC Report, in hopes that the report would reveal good news about AM IBOC.

New tower standards 

In the U.S., the joint TIA//EIA-222 standard oversees the design of broadcast and antenna supporting towers.

Tower maintenance 

There are very few jobs in broadcasting where one can start at the top; but tower maintenance is the one where it is best to start at the top and work down.

Top loading, part 2 of 2 

Part One described the events leading to the development of top loading of broadcast AM antennas. This part continues with details of the types of top loading and discusses the use of the FCC's Rules in planning a top-loaded antenna system.

Top loading, part 1 of 2 

Engineers charged with the job of designing a new AM transmitter facility nearly always try to plan for the tallest tower possible. This is not just an ego trip; it's because the taller the AM radiator, the higher the field strength developed in the listening area with a given power.

Impedance matching 

We have all been taught that the load impedance must match the generator impedance in the case of non-DC voltages in order to obtain the most efficient transfer of power. In DC work it seems that loads with an improper resistance fail to work because the supply voltage is too low, or else burn out because their resistance is too low for the applied voltage, and simple Ohm's law applies.

Computerized planning and station engineering 

In the early days of radio engineering, it was necessary to calculate every value used in determining coverage and antenna design manually. Slide rules were the norm, and many engineers carried one in a hip holster -- well, almost. My slide-rule case certainly had a belt slot in it.

Thoughts on FM 

I often wonder if Major Armstrong knew what he was giving to the world when he began developing frequency modulation as a public service.

Tall AM towers 

Usually, bigger is better. But in the case of AM towers, taller is not always better. A very tall AM radiator is not always the best radiator. In fact,

The licensing process 

Whoever said, the more things change, the more they remain the same, must have had the FCC in mind. More than 50 years ago, Form 301 was thin and did

Detuning unwanted reradiators 

Like mushrooms after a heavy rain, unwanted reradiators sometimes appear almost overnight in the near field of AM antennas.

Mutual impedance 

Matters of impedance are deeply significant in radio engineering. In audio, with lower frequencies, the actual component values are generally considerably

Antenna basics 

The author Gertrude Stein once said a rose is a rose, is a rose is a rose. Maybe an antenna is an antenna, is an antenna also applies, but an AM antenna

AM tower installation 

If you have the good fortune to be responsible for the installation of a directional AM station, you will find that there are many important details that

Care of transmission lines 

Most radio engineers will agree that after the antenna and ground system, transmission lines are probably the most neglected item. For both AM and FM,

Using the operating impedance bridge 

Many test instruments have been developed in the history of broadcast engineering. Some have had brief lives; others simply filled the needs that many

Parasitic radiators 

A radio engineer's definition of a parasite might be something that obtains its power from another's energy. In other areas of broadcast engineering it

How is your VSWR? 

One phenomenon common to transmitter installations does not always receive the attention it warrants. Voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) can wreak havoc

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