This is the fourth article in a series called Need to Know, exploring complex topics like blockchain, 5G and cybersecurity, and how they apply to each industry served by the websites and magazines of Future U.S., the parent of Radio World.
As emerging technologies go, artificial intelligence has certainly taken its time in making its presence felt on the world.
Surprising as at may be (to some), the term AI has actually been around for almost 70 years, having been coined back in 1955 by computer scientist John McCarthy — a.k.a. the “father of AI.”
Since then, AI has experienced a stop-start existence, largely due to sporadic funding and below-par technology. In truth, the term AI has arguably gained more notoriety for storylines of killer robots (and the occasional Wall-e) hell-bent on destroying mankind than for its practical use and business benefits. But that’s all changing.
THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Thanks to breakthroughs in computing power, the advent and availability of big data, cloud hosting/storage, highly sophisticated software and complex algorithms, the potential of AI is now starting to be fulfilled — with the business world being the biggest benefactors.
The market has reacted at pace. In recent years, billions of dollars have been invested by many — if not all — of the world’s leading organizations into AI technologies (and companies), each of them looking to utilize some form of AI technology to future-proof and improve their businesses, and/or create a competitive advantage
Intel, Microsoft, Facebook, Samsung, IBM, Google (Deepmind), Amazon, Uber, LG, Apple, Yahoo are just some of the 2,000-plus AI specialists in the field using and providing intelligent machine-powered services.
Various estimates suggest more than $46 billion will be spent on AI services by 2020 by businesses, a figure rising to above $51 billion 12 months later.
BUT WHAT IS AI?
Before we go on (for the non-computer scientists out there), it’s perhaps worth just clarifying a few things around what AI is and is not. Yes, AI can mean robotics, but the best examples of AI are purely software-based rather than having a physical form.
There are hundreds, maybe thousands of often extremely technical and confusing definitions bandied around online and in various publications detailing what AI actually provides. Indeed, entire books have been written detailing the subject.
For a more technical and detailed description we recommend you visit your local library, or download a copy of one from the many AI authors out there — Nick Bostrom’s “Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies” is a personal favorite.
In its most simple form, AI is the study of methods for making computers behave intelligently and being able to replicate various characteristics of humans.
These can include identifying objects, sounds, understanding languages spoken, reading and understanding content such as text and numbers.
Machine learning is another extremely important branch of AI that you’ll often hear and read about. ML uses a more cognitive approach, using algorithms that enable it (whatever form factor “it” may be) to combine what it’s been programmed to do, but also the capability of learning for itself through experience.
WHERE WE ARE?
Depending on what you have seen, heard or read (fictional or not), you may have different ideas as to what AI is and is capable of at this stage. To offer some clarity there are three simple levels to be aware of.
- Weak AI — AI capable of demonstrating human intelligence to carry out specific tasks.
- Strong AI — AI capable of showing self-awareness, the ability to think and make decisions for itself to the same level as a human being.
- AI Super Intelligence — AI showing superior levels of intelligence to human beings and fully in control of its existence.
For now and for the foreseeable future, only Weak AI is currently relevant, so it’s time to remove any images of a leathered, sunglasses-wearing Arnold Schwarzenegger.
IT’S ALREADY HERE
Examples of weak AI have widely been adopted by many different business and are in use today; you just might not realize it.
In fact, it’s a fairly safe bet that you’ve unknowingly encountered some form of AI and machine learning technology before you started reading this article. Maybe even before you got out of bed.
Have you ever used Apple’s personal assistant, Siri? Or Amazon's Alexa? Perhaps you’ve noticed how your emails can often now detect questions being asked of you and automatically provide you with a ready-made short reply? How about your smartphone that seems to be able to predict sentences you’re about to type as you’re typing?
If you like a bit of online shopping (such as Amazon) or video streaming (Netflix), have you wondered how those personalized recommendations are determined? What about Facebook and its ability to not only recognize there are people in the photo you’ve posted, but can sometimes even identify them too?
They’re all using some form of AI, with the intention of bettering their customers’ experience, enhancing their financial opportunities and — unseen externally — improve their efficiency in workplace.
AI FOR ALL
“We are at the cusp of a new revolution, one that will ultimately transform every organization, every industry and every public service across the world,” said Ralph Haupter, president, Microsoft Asia. “I believe 2018 is the year that this will start to become mainstream, to begin to impact many aspects of our lives in a truly ubiquitous and meaningful way.”
You may be forgiven for thinking the implementation of AI is something exclusively for the Fortune 500s of this world ... but you’d be wrong.
Today, such are the advancements and an ever-growing number of companies exist purely to support businesses using AI technology.
AI can be packaged up and purchased on a monthly basis, like your broadband or phone. This model reduces significant costs associated with custom in-house solutions.
It also means the complexity is significantly removed (the “it doesn’t matter how it works as long as it works” approach), meaning you won’t necessarily need to go and employ a qualified and expensive computer scientist.
“You don't need to be a mathematics genius or have a Ph.D. in software engineering to make sense of AI for your business,” said Gartner analyst Whit Andrews. “You don’t have to make massive investments in infrastructure and personnel in order to start applying AI’s potentially transformative technologies.”
He adds: “These technologies will transform the nature of work and the workplace itself. Machines will be able to carry out more of the tasks done by humans, complement the work that humans do, and even perform some tasks that go beyond what humans can do. As a result, some occupations will decline, others will grow, and many more will change.”
So, why should you and your business consider implementing AI? Could it be just a fad? Will it really benefit you?
The answers are wide and extremely varied and will be largely unique to your own business. There may be some obvious areas of your business you’d like to improve upon, be it financially or operationally motivated.
The magnitude and inevitability of AI cannot be ignored, nor underestimated. Many AI experts and professionals have described the potential impact of AI on businesses as being equivalent to the invention and adoption of the personal computer and email.
Some suggest that AI can help boost revenues by around 20 percent, while others warn that any business currently not at least thinking about adopting some form of AI could already be two years behind a rival. Further delays could even result in their demise further down the road due to losing a competitive advantage.
DO OR DIE?
“More than one-third of businesses will not survive the next 10 years,” said John Chambers, now former CEO of Cisco during a discussion on AI. “Companies should not miss the market transition or business model nor underestimate your competitor of the future — not your competitor of the past.”
Ovum Principle Analyst Michael Azoff adds: “Every business should at a minimum make itself aware of AI progress in its industry.”
The first thing to remember is what the purpose of AI actually is and identifying how it can benefit your business. From speaking to various professionals in the field, the two core reasons can be narrowed down to the following:
- Solving existing problems
- Discovering and identifying new opportunities
The uses of AI are therefore extremely vast and varied.
At its core, AI is fuelled by data, which can come in many forms for many uses. Emails, newsletters, subscriptions, views to your website, downloads, sales are just some examples of where data can be collected.
On its own, that data may not seem useful. However, contained within it could be the difference between success and failure (profit and loss). This is where AI comes into play, and be able to — in many instances — do the job of a human.
A famous quote within AI circles comes from Michael Palmer of the Association of National Advertisers sums it up well.
“Data is just like crude [oil]. It’s valuable, but if unrefined it cannot really be used. It has to be changed into gas, plastic, chemicals, etc. to create a valuable entity that drives profitable activity; so data must be broken down and analyzed for it to have value.”
Today, the bulk of that potentially valuable data held in companies is still not being utilized.
“If we look at the amount of data which is actually being analyzed today, only 20 percent of the data we have is searchable and being used productively,” said IBM Chairman, President and CEO during a discussion on the subject. “The other 80 percent is held inside companies, generally not being used.”
IMPACT ON JOBS
Automation is one of the more universal drivers for AI, a concept that spreads fear when discussing the risks to people’s professions. Administrative work (such as data processing, data collection) is widely seen as an area where AI will support and/or replace humans.
Some figures suggest almost half of all work could eventually be automated, while PwC estimates AI-powered machines could take up to 30 percent of U.K. jobs by 2030. The Bank of England has estimated that 15 million jobs may be at risk.
“If your work is repetitive and not creative, you will be gone very soon,” was a stark warning Dr. Roman V. Yampolskiy, a professor in the department of Computer Engineering and Computer Science at the Speed School of Engineering, University of Louisville.
Bart Selman, a professor of computer science at Cornell University, was quoted as saying: “A lot of large companies have ‘middle management’ jobs where people manage other people at a very low-level in terms of keeping track of things like vacations and sick days. Those jobs I believe are at risk. Jobs that involve a large routine component. If you’ve made the proper investment, you can develop an AI system that can take over a good fraction of those jobs. A lot of big companies have a lot of those positions and will be looking at it.”
Examples of automation and loss of jobs can be seen all over the world today. Some of the headline-grabbing stories include that of a Japanese law firm called Fukoku Mutual Life, which invested more than $1.7 million building an AI platform with IBM Watson, and has seen more than 34 staff replaced. The savings for the firm are predicted to be around $1 million a year.
“The next wave of economic dislocation won’t come from overseas,” President Barack Obama stated in 2017 during his farewell address. “It will come from the relentless pace of automation that makes many good middle-class jobs obsolete.”
SPOTTING AN OPPORTUNITY
Another major area for AI adoption is within sales. There are now examples of where AI, using natural language processing software and specific algorithms, is able to spot patterns (in data), to identify new opportunities and provide a level of analysis in just a few seconds.
This can vary greatly. Examples include gaining greater knowledge on customer’s viewing and buying behavior — i.e, what they’re looking at and when they most likely buy (such as payday).
Another might be identifying the best time to send custom marketing/promotional material or e-newsletters to specific customers rather than en masse as part of a one-size-fits-all strategy. Another could be automatically identifying cold customers (those that haven’t transacted with you for a while) or have looked at something for a long period but not bought, sending them updates, reminders or special offers.
Let’s take a closer look at some of the various examples of AI technology in action today that can be widely implemented into many different businesses and organizations.
The use of personal or virtual assistants has gained mass-market appeal in both business and consumer markets in recent years, with services becoming increasingly accessible and affordable.
Using speech recognition and natural language processing, the technology is able to understand and respond to both written and spoken voice commands in a human manner.
Popular examples include Apple’s Siri (iPhone 5 and above), Microsoft’s Cortana, Amazon’s Alexa and Google Home — but there are hundreds more.
Their functionality and uses continue to evolve and can integrate with many existing applications (calendars, to do lists, reminders, maps and even managing your meetings). More recently, these technologies are being integrated to control electrical appliances — AV, lights, shades, thermostat and so on.
Amazon recently launched “Alexa For Hospitality” for its Dot and Echo microphone and speaker products. The platform is designed to transform rooms (such as hotel rooms) into Smart Rooms, carrying out all the functions mentioned above, while also providing spoken information specific to the hotel (room service, booking a restaurant, laundry, tickets to attractions and so on).
One of the fastest areas of adoption for AI is in customer service. As above, using natural language processing and machine learning, so-called chatbots or Virtual Agents are increasingly being integrated into websites to be able to have online conversations with customers in multiple languages to solve their queries in a human-like manner and, depending on the business, maximize sales opportunities. According to an Oracle survey earlier this year, around 80 percent of businesses want chatbots by 2020.
Such services are able to help reduce the number of calls to a call center, reducing waiting times, enhance the customer experience and even reduce the number of required operators, saving money. Chatbots, in some instances, have become so realistic, it’s sometimes now difficult to distinguish between human and AI.
Some examples of where chatbots have had a significant positive outcome for businesses:
- 1–800-Flowers: reported that more than 70 percent of its Messenger orders derived from new customers!
- Sephora: increased its makeover appointments by 11 percent via their Facebook Messenger Chatbot.
- Nitro Café: increased sales by 20 percent with its Messenger chatbot which was designed for easy ordering, direct payments and instant two-way communication.
- Sun’s Soccer: Chatbots drove nearly 50 percent of its users back to their site throughout specific soccer coverage; 43 percent of chatbot subscribers clicked through during their best period.
- Asos: increased orders by 300 percent using Messenger Chatbots and got a 250 percent return on Spend while reaching 3.5x more people.
AI is also being used to help monitor company perception from customers on social media in real time, or to assess, for example, the views and opinions of a company, the service provided or perhaps a new ad campaign or a new product offered. The analysis provided from the feedback received can be used to help a company to acknowledge and rectify misgivings and gain a greater insight into its audience.
While language translation technology has existed for decades, the evolution of AI-powered voice-to-text, text-to-voice and voice-to-voice technology has reached speed and accuracy levels that enable language barriers to be all but completely removed. Microsoft and Google are two of the leaders in this space, providing the service for businesses and developers alike.
Statistically, on average there are more than 2 million news stories published online every single day. Facebook, a social media site with more than 2.23 billion users (more than a quarter of the planet’s population), uses AI to understand you as an individual, viewing your preferences, posts, shares and likes to provide a personalized news feed.
With shoppers spending more online than ever, it’s becoming increasingly vital for companies to ensure every opportunity is maximized and that customers find what they want and even things they didn’t want. To help support, online companies are able to create a digital profile of each customer, monitoring their account for buying history and items viewed. This enables the platform to make recommendations it believes are relevant to the customer, while also sending reminders (via email or via other websites where it has advertising space) that an item is still in stock and/or any offers to help seal the deal.
AI technology is also being used to help retailers manage their current and future stock levels and predict increased demand by taking into account things like weather and local events. For example, if the weather is expected to be hot, additional stock on water, meat and grills may be suggested (or automatically ordered), while cold weather might suggest more umbrellas and waterproofs.
AI is transforming security, particularly in the financial space, with AI rather than humans, able to monitor suspicious spending activities 24/7, placing immediate blocks on transactions (online or physical). Financial institutions are even using past information (data) to help determine decisions, such as whether a credit check or mortgage or bank loan application is accepted or declined.
In 2016, it was estimated that attacks on individual companies in the U.K. surpassed 230,000. On average, 1,000 company firewalls were breached, despite having what might have been considered the appropriate security measures in place. With cyber attacks becoming ever more sophisticated and changing by the day, AI can be used to monitor a company’s entire network 24/7, identify anything out of the ordinary and either kill it immediately, or halt it for further inspection.
AI is also able to detect unusual activity from members of staff, such as accessing information (a file or document) for the first time — again, either preventing it from being accessed or immediately alerting others.
Poor, grainy, black-and-white tape-recorded CCTV is starting to be replaced, with HD, connected cloud-based models, able to view and analyze what they’re seeing. In the event of something suspicious, alerts can be sent to the appropriate personnel, while sophisticated recorded facial recognition technology could help alert teams, for instance in retail, when a known shoplifter has entered the store or area.
AI in robotics is beginning to see increasing levels of adoption within customer services and teaching environments.
Robots, capable of identifying their surroundings (i.e. an obstacle, adult, child) have been used to provide additional support within hotels and hospitality, using speech recognition to answer questions from customers.
Hilton Worldwide has previously trialled robots (Connie) at its concierge, to provide directions to a local attraction, restaurant opening times and help in checking in or out.
Japanese firm SoftBank has also been deploying robots (Pepper) within its electronic retail stores.
Robots such as Pepper are also being used and programmed to provide teaching support within educational environments, answering questions from students on specific subjects and using a display or projector to provide visuals.
It’s worth mentioning the transformative impact AI is having on healthcare. At its most basic, mobile phone apps are now available where an AI virtual assistant is able to have a conversation with the user in an attempt to help them in diagnosing a condition, plus provide professional advice on what to do next.
A more advanced version of this is being used by clinicians to help assist in the diagnosis and treatment of life-threatening illnesses and diseases, such as cancer.
Statistically, only 20 percent of the knowledge physicians use to make diagnosis and treatment decisions today is evidence-based. This means one in five diagnoses are incorrect or incomplete and nearly 1.5 million medication errors are made in the U.S. every year. More than 250,000 people die in the country annually as a result of such medical errors, something AI will help to reduce.
For example Qure.ai is using image recognition deep learning software that is able to take a examination of X-rays, MRIs and CT scans, and spot things an (overworked) professional may miss.
In addition, IBM’s AI platform Watson, uses language capabilities, hypothesis generation and evidence-based learning to support medical professionals as they make decisions in diagnosing and treating patients. First the physician might pose a query to the system, describing symptoms and other related factors based on the patient's medical records.
Watson then mines the patient data to find relevant facts about family history, current medications and other existing conditions. It combines this information with current findings from tests and instruments and then examines all available data sources to form hypotheses and test them.
Watson can incorporate treatment guidelines, electronic medical record data, doctors’ and nurses’ notes, research, clinical studies, journal articles and patient information into the data available for analysis.
Yes, it’s taken this long to mention the subject of driverless vehicles. Widely tipped to have the biggest impact on jobs — particularly in the U.S. transport industry (over 4 million jobs) — autonomous vehicles are already being tested and slowly introduced — albeit human-assisted.
Various self-driving technologies have been developed by Google, Uber, Tesla, Nissan, Mercedes and more.
Key objectives for driverless vehicles include improving safety during a commute, with all cars communicating with each other and their surroundings to create a real-time digital map that is continually assessing risks. As a result, reaction times are no longer required from a human driver in the event of, say, an sudden obstacle, or even the car performing an emergency stop, with the vehicle — which is in tune with the other car(s) reacting for you. Driverless vehicles will also be able to provide a new dynamic in the way people are able to work or socialize during a journey, while also helping to reduce congestion in towns and cities, by connecting intelligently like traffic lights and emergency vehicles.
There have been several commercial examples, including self-aware trucks — including a Budweiser delivery — and taxis (Uber) completing journeys, demonstrating the technology is racing forward. However, progress has stalled somewhat and public opinion has been damaged due a number of high-profile deaths, including a self-driving Tesla colliding with a truck and a recent Uber taxi running over a woman.
It’s predicted by Statista there will be as many as 2.1 million autonomous vehicles on the road by 2025 and 20.8 million by 2030.
AI is expected to have the greatest and earliest impact upon the following industries:
- Customer service (including call centers)
- Healthcare (including lifestyle)
According to Oxford University, the following professions each have a 99 percent probability of being replaced by computers in the future:
- Data entry keyers
- Library technicians
- New accounts clerks
- Photographic process workers and processing machine operators
- Tax preparers
- Cargo and freight agents
- Watch repairers
- Insurance underwriters
- Mathematical technicians
- Title examiners, abstractors and searchers
Meanwhile, the following professions are predicted to be safe:
- Recreational therapists
- First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers and repairers
- Emergency management directors
- Mental health and substance abuse social workers
- Occupational therapists
- Orthotists and prosthetists
- Healthcare social workers
These are just a handful of examples of how AI is already proving significant benefits and opportunities for businesses all over the world.
It’s important to realize these are current technologies. The AI revolution is here and it is likely to play a key role in the future of the way your business runs and performs, if it is not already doing so. When you decide to get on board is up to you.
We’ll leave you with this quote from Gartner: “As vendors exploit AI software capabilities within business suites, enterprise applications, infrastructure support services and the customer experience, your organization will need new or updated strategies. Ready or not, AI is coming to you.”
SIDEBAR — TERMINOLOGY YOU NEED TO KNOW
- Algorithm — is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems. Algorithms can perform calculation, data processing and automated reasoning tasks.
- Chatbot (also known as a talkbot, chatterbot, Bot, IM bot, interactive agent, or Artificial Conversational Entity) is a computer program or an artificial intelligence which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods.Such programs are often designed to convincingly simulate how a human would behave as a conversational partner.
- Deep learning (also known as deep structured learning or hierarchical learning) is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on learning data representations, as opposed to task-specific algorithms. Learning can be supervised, semi-supervised or unsupervised
- A virtual assistant is a software agent that can perform tasks or services for an individual. Sometimes the term “chatbot” is used to refer to virtual assistants generally or specifically those accessed by online chat (or in some cases online chat programs that are for entertainment and not useful purposes).
- Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to “learn” (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.
- Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science and others. Robotics deals with the design, construction, operation and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback and information processing.
- Speech recognition is the interdisciplinary sub-field of computational linguistics that develops methodologies and technologies that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers. It is also known as automatic speech recognition (ASR), computer speech recognition or speech to text (STT). It incorporates knowledge and research in the linguistics, computer science and electrical engineering fields.